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Term : Abatement

Meaning of abbrevation : Reducing the degree of intensity of, or eliminating, pollution

Term : Abiogenesis

Meaning of abbrevation : Early theory that held that some organisms originated from nonliving material.

Term : Abiotic

Meaning of abbrevation : Non-living chemical and physical factors of the environment

Term : Acclimation

Meaning of abbrevation : The process of an organism adjusting to chronic change in its environment.

Term : Acetylcholine

Meaning of abbrevation : A chemical released at neuromuscular junctions that binds to receptors on the surface of the plasma membrane of muscle cells, causing an electrical impulse to be transmitted. The impulse ultimately leads to muscle contraction.

Term : Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Meaning of abbrevation : A collection of disorders that develop as a result of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks helper T cells, crippling the immune system and greatly reducing the body's ability to fight infection; results in premature death brought about by various diseases that overwhelm the compromised immune system.

Term : Actin

Meaning of abbrevation : The protein from which microfilaments are composed; forms the contractile filaments of sarcomeres in muscle cells.

Term : Adaptation

Meaning of abbrevation : The process of changes in a living organism that help it adjust to the conditions of the environment, making it easier for animals to obtain food or shelter, or protect offspring.

Term : Adaptive radiation

Meaning of abbrevation : The development of a variety of species from a single ancestral form; occurs when a new habitat becomes available to a population. Evolutionary pattern of divergence of a great many taxa from a common ancestral species as a result of novel adaptations or a recent mass extinction. Examples: mammals during the Cenozoic Era after the extinction of dinosaurs at the close of the Mesozoic Era flowering plants during the Cretaceous Period diversified because of their reproductive advantages over gymnosperm and non-seed plants that dominated the floras of the world at that time

Term : Adenine

Meaning of abbrevation : One of the four nitrogen-containing bases occurring in nucleotides, the building blocks of the organic macromolecule group known as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). Adenine is also the base in the energy carrying molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is the energy coin of the cell.

Term : Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Meaning of abbrevation : A common form in which energy is stored in living systems; consists of a nucleotide (with ribose sugar) with three phosphate groups. The energy coin of the cell.

Term : Adhesion

Meaning of abbrevation : The ability of molecules of one substance to adhere to a different substance.

Term : Adventitious roots

Meaning of abbrevation : Roots that develop from the stem following the death of the primary root. Branches from the adventitious roots form a fibrous root system in which all roots are about the same size; occur in monocots.

Term : Aerate

Meaning of abbrevation : To impregnate with gas, usually air.

Term : Aerobic

Meaning of abbrevation : Requiring air or oxygen; used in reference to decomposition processes that occur in the presence of oxygen.

Term : Aerobic digester

Meaning of abbrevation : An aeration tank that is used to treat waste activated humus or primary sludges or a mixture of them, usually in a small plant with extended aeration or contact stabilization treatment. A typical operational problem associated with an aerobic digester is pH control. For example, when pH drops, this may indicate normal biological activity or low influent alkalinity. This problem is corrected by adding alkalinity, i.e. lime, bicarbonate, etc.

Term : Aerosols

Meaning of abbrevation : Solid or liquid particles suspended within the atmosphere.

Term : Afforestation -

Meaning of abbrevation : Planting new forests on lands that have not been recently forested.

Term : Agenda 21 global sustainable development

Meaning of abbrevation : The global sustainable development agenda set out in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, which was established at the Earth Summit in 1992. Agenda 21 consists of 40 chapters, and at its roots are 27 principles. There are four broad sections which cover a range of issues: social and economic dimensions; conservation and management of resources for development; strengthening the role of major groups; and implementation. Agenda 21 highlights the importance of national strategies with international cooperation. It concludes proposals for the integration of environment and development issues in decision making and provisions for international institutional arrangements and legal mechanisms. Agenda 21 is an important document which has broad support among nations on all aspects of environment related to social and economic growth.

Term : Agroforestry

Meaning of abbrevation : (Sustainability) an ecologically based farming system, that, through the integration of trees in farms, increases social, environmental and economic benefits to land users.

Term : B cells

Meaning of abbrevation : Type of lymphocyte responsible for antibody-mediated immunity; mature in the bone marrow and circulate in the circulatory and lymph systems where they transform into antibody-producing plasma cells when exposed to antigens.

Term : Backflow

Meaning of abbrevation : Movement of water back to source e.g. contaminated water in a plumbing system.

Term : Backyard burning

Meaning of abbrevation : An illegal method of getting rid of household waste, possibly in an attempt to save on bin charges, that releases levels of pollutants into the air, so harming air quality and risking the health of those burning the waste and of their neighbours.

Term : bacteriophages

Meaning of abbrevation : Viruses that attack and kill bacterial cells; composed only of DNA and protein.

Term : Bagasse

Meaning of abbrevation : The fibrous residue of sugar cane milling used as a fuel to produce steam in sugar mills.

Term : Bark

Meaning of abbrevation : The outer layer of the stems of woody plants; composed of an outer layer of dead cells (cork) and an inner layer of phloem

Term : Barr body

Meaning of abbrevation : Inactivated X-chromosome in mammalian females. Although inactivated, the Barr body is replicated prior to cell division and thus is passed on to all descendant cells of the embryonic cell that had one of its X-chromosomes inactivated

Term : Barr body

Meaning of abbrevation : Inactivated X-chromosome in mammalian females. Although inactivated, the Barr body is replicated prior to cell division and thus is passed on to all descendant cells of the embryonic cell that had one of its X-chromosomes inactivated

Term : Basal body

Meaning of abbrevation : A structure at the base of a cilium or flagellum; consists of nine triplet microtubules arranged in a circle with no central microtubule.

Term : Basidia

Meaning of abbrevation : Specialized club-shaped structures on the underside of club fungi (Basidiomycetes) within which spores form (sing.: basidium).

Term : Basidiomycetes

Meaning of abbrevation : The club fungi, a major group of fungi that all produce a structure (basidium) on which basidiospores are produced. Includes mushrooms and toadstools.

Term : Batters

Meaning of abbrevation : (Landscape design) the slope of earthworks such as drainage channels.

Term : Bay

Meaning of abbrevation : A bay is a body of water that is partly enclosed by land

Term : beta decay

Meaning of abbrevation : Type of radioactive decay in which a radioisotope emits a small, negatively-charged and fast-moving particle from its nucleus. The beta particle is similar in size, charge, and speed to an electron and is formed when a neutron in the radioisotope's nucleus converts to a proton.

Term : Bicarbonate ions

Meaning of abbrevation : A weak base present in saliva that helps to neutralize acids in food.

Term : Bioaccumulation

Meaning of abbrevation : The accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of a living organism.

Term : Biocapacity

Meaning of abbrevation : A measure of the biological productivity of an area. This may depend on natural conditions or human inputs like farming and forestry practices; the area needed to support the consumption of a defined population.

Term : Biochemical cycle

Meaning of abbrevation : The flow of an element through the living tissue and physical environment of an ecosystem; e. g., the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles.

Term : Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD

Meaning of abbrevation : The quantity of oxygen utilized in the biochemical oxidation of organic matter under standard laboratory procedures for five days at 20 degrees Celsius, usually expressed as a concentration (e.g., mg/l).

Term : Biocoenosis

Meaning of abbrevation : Biocoenosis (alternatively, biocoenose or biocenose ) – all the interacting organisms living together in a specific habitat (or biotope).

Term : C3 & C4 plants

Meaning of abbrevation : C4 plants comprise about 5% of all plants, are most abundant in hot and arid conditions, and include crops like sugar cane and soybeans. During photosynthesis they form molecules with 4-carbon atoms and saturate at the given level of CO2. C3 plants, the other 95%, photosynthesise to form 3 carbon molecules and increase photosynthesis with as CO2 levels increase.

Term : Calorie

Meaning of abbrevation : A basic measure of energy that has been replaced by the SI unit the joule; in physics it approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C which is about 4.184 joules. The Calories in food ratings (spelled with a capital C) and nutrition are ‘big C’ Calories or kcal.

Term : Calorific value

Meaning of abbrevation : The energy content of a fuel measured as the heat released on complete combustion

Term : Capillary action

Meaning of abbrevation : Capillary action (wicking) – water drawn through a medium by surface tension.

Term : Carbon count

Meaning of abbrevation : A measure of the amount of carbon dioxide you produce through your lifestyle every day, for example through driving or using electrical appliances and lighting.

Term : Carbon credit

Meaning of abbrevation : A unit of carbon dioxide bought to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Term : Carbon cycle

Meaning of abbrevation : The biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

Term : Carbon dioxide

Meaning of abbrevation : A gas with the chemical formula CO2; the most abundant greenhouse gas emitted from fossil fuels.

Term : Carbon Dioxide Equivalent

Meaning of abbrevation : (CO2e ) – the unit used to measure the impacts of releasing (or avoiding the release of) the seven different greenhouse gases; it is obtained by multiplying the mass of the greenhouse gas by its global warming potential. For example, this would be 21 for methane and 310 for nitrous oxide.

Term : Carbon emissions

Meaning of abbrevation : In the context of climate change, carbon dioxide released when substances, especially oil, gas, and coal, are burned by vehicles and planes, by factories and by homes.

Term : Carbon footprint

Meaning of abbrevation : A measure of the impact our activities have on the environment, especially climate change, often reported as the units of tonnes (or kg) of carbon dioxide each of us produces over a given period of time.

Term : Carbon footprint

Meaning of abbrevation : A measure of the carbon emissions that are emitted over the full life cycle of a product or service and usually expressed as grams of CO2

Term : Carbon monoxide (CO)

Meaning of abbrevation : A highly poisonous, odourless, tasteless and colourless gas that is formed when carbon material burns without enough oxygen. Carbon monoxide is toxic when inhaled because it combines with your blood and prevents oxygen from getting to your organs. If a person is exposed to carbon monoxide over a period, it can cause illness and even death. Carbon Monoxide has no smell, taste or colour. This is why it is sometimes called the “Silent Killer”. The most common causes of carbon monoxide poisoning in the home are house fires, faulty heating appliances such as boilers, blocked chimney or flues, and rooms not properly ventilated. Carbon Monoxide alarms can be used as a backup to provide a warning to householders in the event of a dangerous build up of carbon monoxide.

Term : Carbon neutral

Meaning of abbrevation : Activities where net carbon inputs and outputs are the same.

Term : Carcinogen

Meaning of abbrevation : A substance, radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the facilitation of its propagation.

Term : Carrion

Meaning of abbrevation : The bodies of dead animals usually found in nature in a decaying state

Term : Carrying capacity

Meaning of abbrevation : The number of wildlife species that a given unit of habitat will support without damage to the habitat

Term : Catchment area

Meaning of abbrevation : The area that is the source of water for a water supply whether a dam or rainwater tank.

Term : Cave

Meaning of abbrevation : A cave is a large hole in the ground or in the side of a hill or mountain.

Term : Cell

Meaning of abbrevation : (Biology) the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms and is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living

Term : Dabbling ducks

Meaning of abbrevation : Duck species that principally feed in shallow water by “tipping up” or dabbling on the surface

Term : DDT (Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane)

Meaning of abbrevation : A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as a pesticide that is a persistent organic pollutant

Term : Decomposer

Meaning of abbrevation : An organism such as a carrion bettle or a fungus that feeds upon and breaks down, dead organic matter.

Term : Decomposers

Meaning of abbrevation : Consumers, mostly microbial, that change dead organic matter into minerals and heat

Term : Defecation

Meaning of abbrevation : The process by which the fecal wastes that reach the lower colon and rectum are evacuated from the body. Although the contents of the feces are complex and variable, the body loses the following general types of material via this excretory route : (1) small amounts of water; (2) undigested and unabsorbed residues of ingested food; (3) substances excreted from the body into the digestive tract, particularly inorganic salts; (4) compounds secreted into the intestine as part of the digestive process; (5) living and dead microorganisms that normally inhabit the alimentary tract; and (6) products resulting from the chemical breakdown of the above mentioned materials.

Term : Degradable and nondegradable wastes

Meaning of abbrevation : The complete mixtures in the waters of rivers and lakes include many unknown chemicals. For practical purpose they may be divided into degradable and nondegradable wastes.Degradable wastes in water are those that are reduced in quantity by natural processes. These include organise wastes and thermal discharges. A great source of organic materials in water is domestic sewage. If these materials do not constitute too heavy a load, they are converted into stable inorganic materials by bacteria and other organisms. The degradation process uses the oxygen in the water and constitutes natural self-purification. If, however, the waters are too loaded with organic matter, degradation without sufficient free oxygen produces offensive odours, such as hydrogen sulfide and methane.Nondegradable wastes are salts-soluble in water-soluble gases, or particulate matter (tiny, suspended particles). These wastes may include a wide range of toxic metals arising from complex manufacturing processes; cadmium, mercury, and lead are examples. Generally, the effects of these substances on life are not fully understood, and permissible levels are not properly known. There have been incidences, however, of permanent neurological impairment and death among persons eating fish from waters heavily polluted by mercury.

Term : Depredation

Meaning of abbrevation : The act of preying upon in reference to wildlife damage to farmer’s crops

Term : Desalination

Meaning of abbrevation : producing potable or recyclable water by removing salts from salty or brackish water. This is done by three methods: distillation/freezing; reverse osmosis using membranes and electrodialysis; ion exchange.

Term : Desert

Meaning of abbrevation : An area that receives an average annual precipitation of less than 250 mm (9.8 in) or an area in which more water is lost than falls as precipitation.• desertification - the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities.

Term : Detritivore

Meaning of abbrevation : (Detritus feeder) - animals and plants that consume detritus (decomposing organic material), and in doing so contribute to decomposition and the recycling of nutrients.

Term : Detritus

Meaning of abbrevation : Non-living particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).

Term : DFS

Meaning of abbrevation : Design for sustainability; an integrated design approach aiming to achieve both environmental quality and economic efficiency through the redesign of industrial systems.

Term : Diarrhoea

Meaning of abbrevation : Researchers have showed the four most important issues related to the greatest reductions in diarrhoea. These are:-Safe disposal of excreta;Household and personal hygiene, especially hand washing;Quantity of water used;Quality of water.In regard to safe excreta disposal, infectious diarrhoea such as dysentery, cholera and typhoid, is caused by agents such as bacteria and parasites. These agents get into human via the mouth. Parasitic infections such as intestinal worms or hookworms also get in through the mouth or skin and are passed out in excreta.

Term : Dieback

Meaning of abbrevation : (Arboriculture) a condition in trees or woody plants in which peripheral parts are killed, either by parasites or due to conditions such as acid rain.

Term : Digested Sludge

Meaning of abbrevation : Sewage sludge which has undergone anaerobic sludge digestion or passed through an aerobic digester should have a fibrous structure and a peaty smell which is not unpleasant, unlike raw sludge, but it still may contain organisms that cause disease. Digested sludge is usually more difficult to de-water than raw sludge, although many texts state the opposite.

Term : Dioxin

Meaning of abbrevation : Any one of a number of chemical compounds that are persistent organic pollutants and are carcinogenic.

Term : Disaster

Meaning of abbrevation : Disaster is defined as a crisis situation causing wide spread damage which far exceeds our ability to recover.

Term : Discharge tank

Meaning of abbrevation : Discharge tank is a surge device, which is provided in situations where the pipeline profile is considerably close to the hydraulic gradient line. Discharge tank would normally be situated on the first rise along the pipeline and possibly on subsequent and successively higher rises, which is efficient in reducing the pressure variations. The function of discharge tanks is to fill any low pressure zone caused by pump stoppage, thus preventing water column separation. It will operate only if the water surface is above the lowest level to which the head in the pipeline would otherwise drop to negative pressure following pump stoppage.

Term : Disease

Meaning of abbrevation : An alteration of the dynamic interaction between an individual and his environment sufficient to be deleterious to the well-being of the individual. The cause of a disease may be environmental, or an altered reactivity of the individual to his environment, or a combination of both.

Term : Disease vector

Meaning of abbrevation : Vectors are vehicles by which infections are transmitted from one host to another. Most commonly known vectors consist of arthropods, domestic animals or mammals that assist in transmitting parasitic organisms to humans or other mammals.

Term : Eco

Meaning of abbrevation : A prefix now added to many words indicating a general consideration for the environment e.g. ecohousing, ecolabel, ecomaterial.

Term : Eco-asset

Meaning of abbrevation : A biological asset that provides financial value to private land owners when they are maintained in or restored to their natural state.

Term : Ecological deficit

Meaning of abbrevation : Ecological deficit - of a country or region measures the amount by which its Ecological Footprint exceeds the ecological capacity of that region.

Term : Ecological niche -

Meaning of abbrevation : The habitat of a species or population within its ecosystem.

Term : Ecological succession

Meaning of abbrevation : Ecological succession - the more-or-less predictable and orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community with time.

Term : Ecologically sustainable development -

Meaning of abbrevation : Using, conserving and enhancing the human community's resources so that ecological processes, on which all life depends, can be maintained and enriched into the future.

Term : Ecology

Meaning of abbrevation : A study of the relation of organisms to their environment, or in more simple terms, environmental biology. Ecology is concerned especially with the biology of groups of organisms and with functional processes on the lands, in the oceans and in fresh waters. Ecology is the study of the structure and function of nature [mankind being considered part of nature]. Ecology is one of the basic divisions of biology which are concerned with principles or fundamentals common to all life.

Term : Ecoregion

Meaning of abbrevation : (Bioregion) the next smallest ecologically and geographically defined area beneath "realm" or "ecozone".

Term : Eco-sanitation system

Meaning of abbrevation : Eco-sanitation is a kind of man-nature metabolism system dominated by technological and social behaviour, sustained by natural life support system, vitalised by ecological process. It interacts with human settlement system, wastes management system, hygiene and health care system and agricultural system.

Term : Ecosystem services

Meaning of abbrevation : The role played by organisms, without charge, in creating a healthy environment for human beings, from production of oxygen to soil formation, maintenance of water quality and much more. These services are now generally divided into four groups, supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural.

Term : Ecosystem services

Meaning of abbrevation : The benefits people obtain from the environment. Ecosystem services are the transformation of natural assets (soil, plants and animals, air and water) into things that we value. They can be viewed as provisioning such as food and water; regulating, for example, flood and disease control; cultural such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits; or supporting like nutrient cycling that maintain the conditions for life on Earth. Ecosystem ‘goods’ include food, medicinal plants, construction materials, tourism and recreation, and wild genes for domestic plants and animals.

Term : Effective rainfall

Meaning of abbrevation : The volume of rainfall passing into the soil; that part of rainfall available for plant use after runoff, leaching, evaporation and foliage interception.

Term : Effluent

Meaning of abbrevation : Effluent means liquid discharged as waste. Industries discharge effluents into water and air, causing pollution. So does sewage disposal.

Term : Emergy

Meaning of abbrevation : “Energy memory” all the available energy that was used in the work of making a product directly and indirectly, expressed in units of one type of available energy (work previously done to provide a product or service); the energy of one type required to make energy of another.

Term : Endangered species

Meaning of abbrevation : Species which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in number, or threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters.

Term : Endemic

Meaning of abbrevation : Restricted to a particular area. Used to describe a species or organism that is confined to a particular geographical region, for example, an island or river basin.

Term : Energetics

Meaning of abbrevation : The study of how energy flows within an ecosystem: the routes it takes, rates of flow, where it is stored and how it is used.

Term : Energy accounting

Meaning of abbrevation : Measuring value by the energy input required for a good or service. A form of accounting that builds in a measure of our impact on nature (rather than being restricted to human-based items).

Term : Energy-for-land ratio

Meaning of abbrevation : The amount of energy that can be produced per hectare of ecologically productive land. The units used are gigajoules per hectare and year, or GJ/ha/yr. For fossil fuel (calculated as CO2 assimilation) the ratio is 100 GJ/ha/yr.

Term : Environment

Meaning of abbrevation : Ecologically, the environment is the sum of all external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of organisms. (1) The sum total of external conditions which influence an organisms. (2) The sum total of all the external forces or factors, both abiotic and the biotic that affects the physiological behaviour or performance of an organism or a group of organisms.

Term : Fats

Meaning of abbrevation : Means primarily fatty acid esters of the alcohol glycerol, also called acylglycerols, neutral fats, natural fats, or glycerides. They are the major components of depot, or storage, fats in plant and animal cells, especially in the adipose or fat cells of vertebrates. This term may include any synthesized substance of a like nature.

Term : Feces

Meaning of abbrevation : The waste material eliminated by the gastrointestinal tract. The components and form of feces vary with diet, metabolic activities, and the state of health; illness, changes in diet or water intake and excretion, emotional stimuli and many drugs and chemicals may alter the feces both qualitatively and quantitatively.In general, the feces contain undigested food materials and excretions and secretions of the digestive system, including salts, pigments, bile products, and cellular debris. Food passes from the small intestine to the lower bowel (large intestine) in a semi liquid state; nutrients and water are absorbed in the bowel, and the feces reached the ileocecal valve, 99% of the carbohydrate, 99% of the protein, and 97% of the fats have been absorbed. Water normally remains a large component (about 65% by weight) alongwith the high content of saprophytic bacteria which are normal intestinal flora. Feces constitute important objective evidence in disease.

Term : Feral

Meaning of abbrevation : Domesticated animals that have gone wild (e.g. hogs, dogs, cats)

Term : Feral

Meaning of abbrevation : Feral – domesticated animals that have gone wild (e.g. hogs, dogs, cats)

Term : Fertilizers

Meaning of abbrevation : Compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves.

Term : Filtration

Meaning of abbrevation : Filtration is a process for separating suspended and colloidal impurities from water by passage through a porous medium or porous media. Filtration, with or without pretreatment, has been employed for treatment of water to effectively remove turbidity [e.g., silt and clay], colour, microorganisms, precipitated hardness from chemically softened waters and precipitated iron and maganese from aerated waters. Removal of turbidity is essential not only from the requirement of aesthetic acceptability but also for efficient disinfection which is difficult in the presence of suspended and colloidal impurities that serve as hideouts for the microorganisms.

Term : Fledge

Meaning of abbrevation : The act of leaving the nest or nest cavity after reaching a certain stage of maturity

Term : Fluorides in drinking water

Meaning of abbrevation : Excessive fluorides in drinking water may cause mottling of teeth or dental fluorishes, a condition resulting in the discoloration of the enamel, with chipping of the teeth in severe cases, particularly in children. In Indian conditions where the temperatures are high, the occurrence and severity of mottling increases when the fluoride levels exceed 1.0 mg/1. With higher levels, skeletal or bone fluorishes with its crippling effects are observed.

Term : Food chain

Meaning of abbrevation : A sequence of feeding types, on successive levels within a community through which energy and biomass is transferred (e.g. plants are eaten by rodents that are eaten by snakes that are eaten by hawks)

Term : Food Chain

Meaning of abbrevation : (Food webs, food networks and/or trophic networks) - the feeding relationships between species within an ecosystem.

Term : Fossil water

Meaning of abbrevation : Groundwater that has remained in an aquifer for thousands or millions of years; when geologic changes seal the aquifer preventing further replenishment, the water becomes trapped inside and is then referred to as fossil water. It is a limited resource.

Term : Fugitive emissions

Meaning of abbrevation : In the context of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, these are greenhouse gases emitted from fuel production itself including, processing, transmission, storage and distribution processes, and including emissions from oil and natural gas exploration, venting, and flaring, as well as the mining of black coal.

Term : Furbearers

Meaning of abbrevation : Various animals that have a thick coat of soft hair covering their bodies

Term : Furbearers

Meaning of abbrevation : Various animals that have a thick coat of soft hair covering their bodies

Term : Garbage

Meaning of abbrevation : Means animal and vegetable wastes and residue from preparation, cooking and dispensing of food and from the handling, processing, storage and sale of food products and produce.

Term : Genetic diversity

Meaning of abbrevation : One of the three levels of biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics.

Term : Global warming potential

Meaning of abbrevation : A system of multipliers devised to enable warming effects of different gases to be compared.

Term : Green architecture

Meaning of abbrevation : Building design that moves towards self-sufficiency sustainability by adopting circular metabolism.

Term : Green Revolution

Meaning of abbrevation : The ongoing transformation of agriculture that led in some places to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s.

Term : Greenhouse effect

Meaning of abbrevation : The insulating effect of atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g., water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) that keeps the Earth's temperature about 60 °F (16 °C) warmer than it would be otherwise cf. enhanced greenhouse effect.

Term : Greenhouse gas

Meaning of abbrevation : Components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Term : Greenhouse gases

Meaning of abbrevation : Greenhouse gases - any gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect; gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and from human activity, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. Water vapor (H2O) is the most abundant greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gases are a natural part of the atmosphere and include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4, persisting 9-15 yrs with a greenhouse warming potential (GWP) 22 times that of CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O persists 120 years and has a GWP of 310), ozone (O3),hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.

Term : Greenlash

Meaning of abbrevation : Dramatic changes in the structure and dynamic behaviour of ecosystems.

Term : Greywater

Meaning of abbrevation : Household waste water that has not come into contact with toilet waste; includes water from baths, showers, bathrooms, washing machines, laundry and kitchen sinks.

Term : Greywater

Meaning of abbrevation : It is estimated that 42 to 79 percent of household greywater comes from bathrooms, 5 to 23 percent from laundry facilities, 10 to 17 percent from the kitchen sink and 5 to 6 percent from the bathroom sink. Various studies have indicated that the amount of greywater generated per person per day varies from 96 to 172 litres. That’s a huge amount of water being wasted in the world every year.Greywater contains recyclable organic materials such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. These materials are pollutants when discarded into the environment.When responsibly recycled, however, they can be beneficial nutrients. Methods have been devised to use greywater for landscape irrigation, certain types of kitchen, gardens, soilbeds, soilboxes and ponds. But as greywater may contain large numbers of bacteria that could be disease-causing organisms, care needs to be taken to utilise and channel it properly.

Term : Grit; sewage

Meaning of abbrevation : Grit in sewage is obtained from domestic sewage, floors of garages and service stations, first storm of the season etc.The volume or quantity of grit is determined by diverse factors such as area of unpaved surfaces in the locality, characteristics of ground, design of grit chambers, intensity of cleaning the streets, location of grit chambers, method of cleaning the streets, occurrence of storms and their intensity, provision of catch basins and system of sewage, combined or separate.

Term : Groundwater

Meaning of abbrevation : After the precipitated water soaks into the soil, a part of it may percolate downward to reach the water table, becoming groundwater in the zone of aeration. Because this percolated water is derived originally from precipitation, it is termed meteoric water. In many arid areas with underground drainage, the major source of meteoric water is seepage from stream runoff and lakes. Besides the meteoric water, groundwater is also contributed in small quantities by some minor sources of water located in the earth’s crust.

Term : Gully trap; sewage

Meaning of abbrevation : A gully trap is usually made of stoneware and a cast iron grating is provided at its top. The gully trap is fitted inside a masonry chamber. A water seal of about 60 mm to 70 mm is provided at the gully trap. The gully trap forms the starting point of horizontal flow of sewage. It is usually situated near the external face of wall and it is kept slightly higher or even in line with pavement or ground level.The gully trap leads the sewage either to sewer or to inspection chamber or to manhole. A well-designed gully trap may serve two or three connections from the Nahiri traps. The top of the gully trap chamber is provided with a cover usually of cast iron, which is taken out to clean the trap.

Term : Habitat

Meaning of abbrevation : The place or environment where an animal (or plant) naturally or normally lives and raises young

Term : Habitat Conservation Plan

Meaning of abbrevation : A plan which outlines the impact of a listed species living within a project area, the steps taken to mitigate the project's impacts and the funding that will be available to implement these measures, alternatives to the project and why they were not adopted, and any other measures that the Fish and Wildlife Service has determined to be necessary for the plan.

Term : Hard water

Meaning of abbrevation : Alkaline water containing dissolved salts that interfere with some industrial processes and prevent soap from lathering.

Term : Hazard

Meaning of abbrevation : A hazard is asituation which poses a level of threat to lefe, health, property or environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential with only a theoritical risk of harm, however, once a hazard becomes active, it can create an emergency situation causing disaster.

Term : Heat

Meaning of abbrevation : Energy derived from the motion of molecules; a form of energy into which all other forms of energy may be degraded.

Term : Heat treatment; sludge

Meaning of abbrevation : Two processes of heat treatment (not drying) of sludge exist. In the process developed originally by Porteous, the sludge is heated with live steam at 1800C and high pressure of 10 to 15 atm, for 30 minute or so. The smell can be disposed of by discharging the gases under the boiler grate as combustion air for the boiler. The liquor resulting from the filter presses is also foul, with a high BOD and must be returned for biological treatment.

Term : Heavy metals; water pollution

Meaning of abbrevation : The term heavy metal is less precisely defined. In chemical terms it can refer to metals with specific gravity greater than about 4 or 5, but more often, the term is simply used to denote metals that are toxic. The list of toxic metals includes aluminum, arsenic, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, strontium, thallium, tin, titanium, and zinc. Some of these metals, such as chromium and iron, are essential nutrients in our diets, but in higher doses are extremely toxic.

Term : Herbicide

Meaning of abbrevation : A chemical the kills or inhibits growth of a plant.

Term : Herpetology

Meaning of abbrevation : The scientific study of reptiles and amphibians as a branch of Zoology

Term : Heterotrophic

Meaning of abbrevation : Requires organic compounds of carbon and nitrogen for nourishment; "most animals are heterotrophic"

Term : Hibernation

Meaning of abbrevation : The act of passing all or part of winter in a dormant state where body functions is greatly slowed

Term : Humus

Meaning of abbrevation : A complex organic component of the soil, resulting from the decomposition of plant and animal tissue; it gives soil its characteristically dark colour and is of great importance for plant growth. The term is also used for a dark brown or almost black complex organic material residue left after the completion of biochemical processes in sewage treatment works.

Term : Hydro energy

Meaning of abbrevation : Potential and kinetic energy of water used to generate electricity

Term : Hydroelectric power

Meaning of abbrevation : The electrical power generated using the power of falling water.

Term : Incinerator

Meaning of abbrevation : Incinerator is a furnace or a container for incinerating waste materials. Incinerator emits effluents to the skies.

Term : Incubation —

Meaning of abbrevation : The act of rearing and hatching eggs by the warmth of the body

Term : Industrial waste

Meaning of abbrevation : Waste resulting from any process of industry, manufacturing, trade or business; from development of any natural resource; from any mixture of the waste with water or normal wastewater; and wastewater containing pollutants in higher concentrations than normal domestic sewage as defined in this section.

Term : Industrial waste waters; water pollution

Meaning of abbrevation : There is no general uniformity of substances found in domestic wastwaters, industrial wastewaters show increasing variation as the complexity of industrial processes rises. It is an account of biological treatment processes are ordinarily employed in water-pollution control plants, large quantities of industrial wastewaters can interfere with the processes as well as the total load of a treatment plant. The organic matter present in many industrial effluents often equals or exceeds the amount from a community.

Term : Inspection chamber; sewer

Meaning of abbrevation : In order to carry out inspection or clearance etc., a chamber is provided in a sewer and is called inspection chamber.

Term : Invasive Alien Species

Meaning of abbrevation : A species introduced outside its normal distribution. Its establishment and spread modify ecosystems, habitats, or species.

Term : Junction; sewers

Meaning of abbrevation : A junction occurs where one or more branch sewers enter a main sewer. The angle of entry may be 30 degrees or 45 degrees with reference to axis of main sewer, whenever ratio of branch sewer diameter to main sewer diameter is one half or less. Junctions are sized so that the velocities in the merging streams are approximately equal at maximum flow.

Term : Juvenile water

Meaning of abbrevation : It is water that has come to the earth surface from great depths for the first time. It is derived from magma.

Term : Kubel test; water

Meaning of abbrevation : A test for small amounts of organics in water, which involves boiling the water with potassium permanganate for 10 minutes. The value is about three times as high as that obtained in 4 hours at 270C in permanganate value test.

Term : Kyoto protocol

Meaning of abbrevation : This the first substantial agreement to set greenhouse gas emission limits in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step towards achieving the aim of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [FCCC], that of preventing dangerous anthropogenic or human-made interference with the climate system.

Term : Landslide

Meaning of abbrevation : A landslide or landslip is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Although the action of gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, there are other contributing factors affecting the original slope stability. Typically, pre-conditional factors build up specific sub-surface conditions that make the area/slope prone to failure, whereas the actual landslide often requires a trigger before being released.

Term : Larvae

Meaning of abbrevation : The immature, wingless, and often wormlike stage of a metamorphic insect that hatches from the egg, alters chiefly in size while passing through several molts, and is finally transformed into a pupa or chrysalis from which the adult emerges

Term : Limiting factor

Meaning of abbrevation : Anything affecting the population of a species which could result from causes in nature as well as human activities. Examples include food, water, shelter, space, disease, predation, climatic conditions, pollution, hunting, poaching and accidents

Term : Limnology

Meaning of abbrevation : It is the scientific study of physical, chemical, meteorological and biological conditions in fresh water, especially of ponds and lakes.

Term : Mammal

Meaning of abbrevation : A class of animals that have backbones, are warm-blooded, breath air, and whose females have milk-secreting glands for feeding their young. There are 19 orders and over 5,000 species of mammals, ranging from the 2 inch shrew to the 100 foot whale.

Term : Mandibles

Meaning of abbrevation : Either the upper or lower part of the beak in birds

Term : Marsupial

Meaning of abbrevation : A mammal of the order Marsupialia that includes kangaroos, opossums, bandicoots and wombats. These females have pouches that contain mammary glands and that shelter the young until fully developed

Term : Maximum allowable discharge limit

Meaning of abbrevation : The maximum concentration of a pollutant allowed to be discharged at any time, determined from the analysis of any discrete or composited sample collected, independent of the industrial flow rate and the duration of the sampling event.

Term : Medical wastes

Meaning of abbrevation : Isolation wastes, infectious agents, human blood and blood products, pathological wastes, sharps, body parts, contaminated bedding, surgical wastes, potentially contaminated laboratory wastes, and dialysis wastes.

Term : Microwave toilet

Meaning of abbrevation : In a significant development in the history of toilet is the availability of microwave toilet of the USA. It runs on electricity and negates use of water and quickly burns human excreta into a spoonful of ash.

Term : Migration

Meaning of abbrevation : The movement of animals, fish and birds in search of food or shelter, often on an annual basis according to the seasons.

Term : Millennium Development Goals

Meaning of abbrevation : Recognizing the problems, world leaders at the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000 expressed an unprecedented determination to end world poverty. They declared their commitment not only to the people of their own countries but to the people of the world. The 189 countries at the summit adopted the Millennium Declaration, committing themselves to do their utmost to achieve key objectives of humanity in the 21st century, including eradicating poverty, promoting human dignity and achieving peace, democracy and environmental sustainability. Stemming from the Declaration were the Millennium Development Goals a set of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators that establish concrete, time-bound targets for advancing development and reducing poverty by 2015 or earlier (see Index to Millennium Development Goal indicators at the end).

Term : Molt

Meaning of abbrevation : To shed hair, feathers, shell, horns or an outer layer periodically

Term : Monoculture

Meaning of abbrevation : The practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area.

Term : Municipal solid waste management

Meaning of abbrevation : Economic development and prosperity are accompanied by the generation of large amount of wastes that must be reused in some way or disposed in landfills. Waste generation can be reduced to some extent by improved design of products and packing material and by increasing intensity of service per unit mass of material used.Solid wastes can be classified into municipal (residential and commercial), industrial, construction and demolition wastes. The Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) are the most non-homogeneous since they consists of the residues of nearly all materials used by humanity: of other organic wastes, papers, plastics, fabrics, leather, metals, glass and miscellaneous other materials. Processing or disposal of MSW requires separating the MSW into a number of streams and subjecting each stream to the most appropriate method of resource recovery. The separation of MSW components can take place at the source, i.e. at households or businesses or at Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) using manual and electromechanical methods.

Term : Nestling

Meaning of abbrevation : A young bird that has not left, or abandoned, the nest

Term : Nutrients; water pollution

Meaning of abbrevation : Nutrients are chemicals, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, sulfur, calcium, potassium, iron, manganese, boron, and cobalt, that are essential to the growth of living things. In terms of water quality, nutrients can be considered as pollutants when their concentrations are sufficient to allow excessive growth of aquatic plants, particularly algae. When nutrients stimulate the growth of algae, the attractiveness of the body of water for recreational uses, as a drinking water supply, and as a viable habitat for other living things can be adversely affected.

Term : Omnivore

Meaning of abbrevation : An animal or organism that feeds on both animal and plant matter

Term : Open defecation

Meaning of abbrevation : Where there are no latrines people resort to defecation in the open. This may be indiscriminate or in special places for defecation generally accepted by the community, such as defecation fields, rubbish and manure heaps, or under trees.Open defecation encourages flies, which spread faeces related diseases. In moist ground the larvae of intestinal worms develop, and faeces and larvae may be carried by people and animals. Surface water run-off from places where people have defecated results in water pollution.In view of the health hazards created and the degradation of the environment, open defecation should not be tolerated in villages and other built-up areas. There are better options available that confine excrete in such a way that the cycle of reinfection from excrete-related diseases is broken.

Term : Ornithology

Meaning of abbrevation : The scientific study of birds as a branch of zoology

Term : Osmosis

Meaning of abbrevation : Certain natural and synthetic membranes have the property of permitting the solvent (e.g. water) to get through them but not the solute (the substance on solution) . Such semi-permeable membranes permit the separation of solute from solvent. This phenomenon is known as “osmosis”. Osmosis, through the semi-permeable membranes, which surround individual cells, helps to control the flow of water through living organisms. This process is expensive but effective.

Term : Parasite

Meaning of abbrevation : An organism that lives by deriving benefit (usually doing harm) from another organism

Term : Passerine

Meaning of abbrevation : Birds of the order Passeriformes, which include perching birds and songbirds such as the jays, blackbirds, finches, warblers and sparrows

Term : Passerine

Meaning of abbrevation : Birds of the order Passeriformes, which include perching birds and songbirds such as the jays, blackbirds, finches, warblers and sparrows

Term : Pathogen

Meaning of abbrevation : Any agent capable of causing disease. The term pathogen is usually restricted to living agents, which include viruses, rickettsia, bacteria, fungi, yeasts, protozoa, helminths, and certain insect larval stages.

Term : Pelage

Meaning of abbrevation : The hair, fur, wool or other soft covering of a mammal

Term : Permafrost

Meaning of abbrevation : Any soil in the arctic regions in which temperatures below freezing have existed continuously for a long time.

Term : Pesticides; water pollution

Meaning of abbrevation : The term pesticide is used to cover a range of chemicals that kill organisms that humans consider undesirable and includes the more specific categories of insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides, and fungicides.There are three main groups of synthetic organic insecticides:organochlorines (also known as chlorinated hydrocarbons), organophosphates, and carbamates. In addition, a number of herbicides, including the chlorophenoxy compounds 2,4,5-T (which contains the impurity dioxin, which is one of the most potent toxins known) and 2,4-D are common water pollutants.

Term : Phenotype

Meaning of abbrevation : Physical manifestation of a trait in an organism, determined by genotype and environment.

Term : Philopatry

Meaning of abbrevation : Annual homing to the same nesting area and often the same nest site

Term : Pipelines

Meaning of abbrevation : Pipelines normally follow the profile of the ground surface quite closely. Gravity pipelines have to be laid below the hydraulic gradient. Pipes are of cast iron, steel, asbestos-cement, prestressed concrete, reinforced cement concrete, plastic etc. Pipes are to be protected against corrosion.

Term : Plastron

Meaning of abbrevation : The ventral surface of the shell of a turtle or tortoise

Term : Pour flush latrines

Meaning of abbrevation : Pour flush latrines use a pit for excreta disposal and have a special pan which is cast in the floor slab and provides a water seal of 20-30 millimeters. This ensures that smells cannot escape into the shelter. Sometimes a vent pipe, which should have a fly screen, is fitted to the pit. The pit may be below or offset from the shelter. Pour flush latrines can also be installed with the pan in the house and the pit outside.

Term : Predator

Meaning of abbrevation : Animals who live by hunting and preying on other animals for their own food supply.

Term : Pump

Meaning of abbrevation : A machine that draws a fluid into itself through an entrance port and forces the fluid out through an exhaust port. A pump may serve to move liquid, as in a cross-country pipeline; to lift liquid, as from a well or to the top of a tall building; or to put fluid under pressure, as in a hydraulic brake.

Term : Quaternary treatment

Meaning of abbrevation : It is an advanced stage of waste water treatment. It aims to remove all kinds of organic and inorganic contaminants present in the wastewater to enable the wastewater treated quality to the portable water standards.

Term : Radially symmetrical

Meaning of abbrevation : In animals, refers to organisms with their body parts arranged around a central axis. Such animals tend to be circular or cylindrical in shape.

Term : Range

Meaning of abbrevation : The geographic area or areas normally inhabited by a species

Term : Recycling

Meaning of abbrevation : The return of discarded or waste materials to the production system for utilization in the manufacture of goods, with a view to the conservation as far as practicable of non-renewable and scarce resources.

Term : Reduction

Meaning of abbrevation : The gain of an electron or a hydrogen atom. The gain of electrons or hydrogens in a chemical reaction.

Term : Region of elongation

Meaning of abbrevation : The area in the tip of a plant root where cells grow by elongating, thereby increasing the length of the root

Term : Remote sensing

Meaning of abbrevation : The essence of remote sensing is to acquire information about an object without keeping the measuring device in physical contact with the object. Today, remote-sensing techniques of scientific invention are beginning to yield information about the emitted radiation or force fields of an object by means of suitable detectors sensitive to the radiation or force. In hydrology, for example, it is possible to spot diseased crops, polluted water, or the flow of hot springs with infrared cameras, to survey ice thickness and distribution with microwave detectors, and to measure soil moisture and rainfall intensity and distribution in thunderstorms by radar.

Term : Reptiles

Meaning of abbrevation : Taxonomic class of vertebrates characterized by scales and amniotic eggs; the first truly terrestrial vertebrate group.

Term : Reverse Osmosis

Meaning of abbrevation : Reverse osmosis is a membrane permeation process for separating relatively pure water (or other solvent) from a less pure solution.The solution is passed over the surface of an appropriate semi permeable membrane at a pressure in excess of the effective osmotic pressure of the feed solution.The permeating liquid is collected as the product and the concentrated feed solution is generally discarded. The membrane must be highly permeable to water, highly impermeable to solutes, and capable of withstanding the applied pressure without failure. Because of its simplicity in concept and execution, reverse osmosis appears to have considerable potential for wide application in water and waste water treatment.

Term : Rhizoids

Meaning of abbrevation : Filamentous structures in the plants group known as bryophytes that attach to a substrate and absorb moisture. The term is also applied to similar structures found outside the bryophytes.

Term : Riparian area

Meaning of abbrevation : The area of influence between upland habitats and aquatic habi

Term : Root-leaf-vascular system axis

Meaning of abbrevation : Refers to the arrangement in vascular plants in which the roots anchor the plant and absorb water and nutrients, the leaves carry out photosynthesis, and the vascular system connects the roots and leaves, carrying water and nutrients to the leaves and carrying sugars and other products of photosynthesis from the leaves to other regions of the plant

Term : Sanitary landfill

Meaning of abbrevation : A method of waste disposal by spreading the waste over land and covering them with a seal of earth. Communities often use landfills to reuse wastes, to help fill low areas, or to build recreational facilities.

Term : Sanitary sewer

Meaning of abbrevation : A public sewer that conveys domestic wastewater or industrial wastewater or a combination of both and into which stormwater, surface water, groundwater, and other unpolluted wastes are not intentionally passed.

Term : Sclereids

Meaning of abbrevation : Plant cells with thick secondary walls that provide the gritty textures in pears

Term : Sclerenchyma

Meaning of abbrevation : One of the three major cell types in plants; have thickened, rigid, secondary walls that are hardened with lignin; provide support for the plant. Sclerenchyma cells include Þbers and sclereids. Plant tissue type consisting of elongated cells with thickened secondary walls for support of the plant

Term : Scrotum

Meaning of abbrevation : In mammals, a pouch of skin located outside the body cavity into which the testes descend; provides proper temperature for the testes

Term : Secondary cell wall

Meaning of abbrevation : In woody plants, a second wall inside the primary cell wall; contains alternating layers of cellulose and lignin.

Term : Secondary compounds

Meaning of abbrevation : Plant products that are not important in metabolism but serve other purposes, such as attracting animals for pollination or killing parasites.

Term : Secondary extinction

Meaning of abbrevation : The death of one population due to the extinction of another, often a food species.

Term : Secondary growth

Meaning of abbrevation : Cells in a plant that are produced by a cambium. Increase in girth of a plant due to the action of lateral meristems such as the vascular cambium. The main cell produced in secondary growth is secondary xylem, better known as wood.

Term : Seed

Meaning of abbrevation : Structure produced by some plants in which the next generation sporophyte is surrounded by gametophyte nutritive tissues. An immature sporophyte in an arrested state of development, surrounded by a protective seed coat.

Term : Segments

Meaning of abbrevation : Repeating units in the body parts of some animals.

Term : Sepals

Meaning of abbrevation : Modified leaves that protect a flower's inner petals and reproductive structures. Small, leaf-like structures in flowers that enclose and protect the developing flower. These are often green, but in many monocots they are the same color as the petals

Term : Sewage

Meaning of abbrevation : Domestic or industrial waste carried in the drains and pipes of the sanitary sewer.

Term : Sewage systems

Meaning of abbrevation : Sewage systems are physical systems for the collection of waste water and its treatment before discharge back into the environment. Domestic waste water includes the used water of businesses and office buildings as well as dwellings; industrial waste water is that discharged during industrial operations. In addition to waste water, sewage systems also handle the flow of storm water, either separately or, more commonly, as part of a single system.

Term : Sewerage

Meaning of abbrevation : A physical arrangement of pipes and plant for the collection, removal, treatment, and disposal of liquid wastes.This is an art of collecting, treating and finally disposing of the sewage; whereas the mixture of water and waste products, popularly called sewage.

Term : Shoot

Meaning of abbrevation : The plant stem; provides support for the leaves and þowers; one of the three major plant organs; also referred to as the shoot system

Term : Simple leaf

Meaning of abbrevation : A leaf in which the blade does not form leaflets.

Term : Sleep movement

Meaning of abbrevation : In legumes, the movement of the leaves in response to daily rhythms of dark and light. The leaves are horizontal in daylight and folded vertically at night.

Term : Sludge

Meaning of abbrevation : Inorganic or inert solid materials and the by-products of bacterial digestion sink to the bottom of the tank and form a layer, commonly called "Sludge".Solids settled out from water, but containing from 55 to 99% water. Apart from the many industrial and waterworks sludges there are several types of sewage sludge, most of which have over 95% water before thickening.

Term : Slurry

Meaning of abbrevation : A watery mixture of insoluble matter that results from some pollution control techniques.

Term : Tank

Meaning of abbrevation : A container for storing liquids or gases. A tank may be constructed of ferrous or nonferrous metals or alloys, reinforced concrete, wood or filament wound plastics, depending upon its use.

Term : Tap root

Meaning of abbrevation : A primary root that grows vertically downward and gives off small lateral roots; occurs in dicots. Root system in plants characterized by one root longer than the other roots. Example: carrot.

Term : Taxon

Meaning of abbrevation : Category of organisms, any of the groups to which organisms are assigned according to the principles of taxonomy, including subspecies, species, genus, family, order, class, and phylum.

Term : Taxonomy

Meaning of abbrevation : A systematic method of classifying plants and animals. Classification of organisms based on degrees of similarity purportedly representing evolutionary (phylogenetic) relatedness.

Term : Tectonic plates

Meaning of abbrevation : Segments of the lithosphere that comprise the surface of the Earth much the way a turtle shell is composed of its plates.

Term : Temperate Forest Biome

Meaning of abbrevation : Extends across regions of the northern hemisphere with abundant rainfall and long growing seasons. Deciduous, broad-leaved trees are the dominant plants.

Term : Terminal Buds

Meaning of abbrevation : Buds located at the end of a plant shoot.

Term : Terrestrial

Meaning of abbrevation : Living or growing on land

Term : Thecodonts

Meaning of abbrevation : An informal term for a variety of Permian and Triassic reptiles that had teeth set in individual sockets. Small, bipedal thecodontians are the probable ancestors of dinosaurs.

Term : Thermoregulation

Meaning of abbrevation : The regulation of body temperature.

Term : Thigmotropism

Meaning of abbrevation : Plants' response to contact with a solid object; e.g., tendrils' twining around a pole. Plant response to touch.

Term : Thorns

Meaning of abbrevation : Stems modified to protect the plant.

Term : Threatened

Meaning of abbrevation : A designation given to species that are likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future if current trends continue. This is the intermediate category between endangered and species of special concern.

Term : Threshold

Meaning of abbrevation : Threshold -(ecology) a point that, when crossed, can bring rapid and sometimes unpredictable change in a trend. An example would be the sudden altering of ocean currents due to the melting of ice at the poles.

Term : Tight junctions

Meaning of abbrevation : Junctions between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells in animals that form a barrier, preventing materials from passing between the cells.

Term : Total Oxygen Demand [TOD]

Meaning of abbrevation : It is an instrumental method used to measure the organic content of wastewater. In this test organic substances and to a minor extent, inorganic substances are converted to stable end products in a platinum catalysed combustion chamber. TOD is determined by monitoring the oxygen content present in the nitrogen carrier gas. This test can be carried out rapidly.

Term : Toxicity

Meaning of abbrevation : A number of compounds which may be present in industrial wastes are reported to be toxic to methanogenic organisms. Anaerobic bacteria like most micro-organisms can be acclimated to different levels of various toxicants.However, because of their slow growth rate the acclimatization period may be comparatively longer. Industrial wastewaters should be evaluated for their toxic effects before anaerobic treatment is adopted.

Term : Trace fossil

Meaning of abbrevation : Any indication of prehistoric organic activity, such as tracks, trails, burrows, or nests.

Term : Tracheids

Meaning of abbrevation : Long, tapered cells with pitted walls that form a system of tubes in the xylem and carry water and solutes from the roots to the rest of the plant. One type of xylem cells. Tracheids are long and relatively narrow, and transport materials from the roots upward. Tracheids are dead at maturity and have lignin in their secondary walls.

Term : Translation

Meaning of abbrevation : The synthesis of protein on a template of messenger RNA; consists of three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Making of a polypeptide sequence by translating the genetic code of an mRNA molecule associated with a ribosome

Term : Ultra filtration; advanced waste water treatment

Meaning of abbrevation : This is similar in operation to reverse osmosis save that the membrane is coarser and the pressure lower. The process removes finely divided rather than dissolved solids, but has openings sufficiently small to remove colloidal particles as well. Ultrafiltration will remove all of the suspended solids and virtually 100 percent of the BOD, COD, and TOC remaining in treated waste water.

Term : Uniformitarianism

Meaning of abbrevation : The idea that geological processes have remained uniform over time and that slight changes over long periods can have large-scale consequences; proposed by James Hutton in 1795 and reÞned by Charles Lyell during the 1800s. The principle on which modern geology was founded: processes operating today on the earth operated in much the same way in the geologic past. Sometimes expressed as "the present is the key to the past".

Term : Urinals

Meaning of abbrevation : Urinals can be of different forms and shapes. The common varieties are of the bowl type or the basin type and the stall type or the slab type. The bowl type is generally used for private houses or buildings, and the stall type is generally used for public buildings and municipal toilets. A third type, called squatting plate type, is used specifically in ladies toilets, only in high classes.

Term : Urine

Meaning of abbrevation : An aqueous solution of organic and inorganic substances, mostly waste products of metabolism. The kidneys maintain the internal milieu of the body by excreting these waste products and adjusting the loss of water and electrolytes to keep the body fluids relatively constant in amount and composition.The urine normally is clear and has a specific gravity of 1.017-1.020, depending upon the amount of fluid ingested, perspiration and diet.The chemical and physical composition of the urine frequently reflects pathological changes not only in the genitourinary tract but disease processes in other parts of the body.

Term : Vascular cambium

Meaning of abbrevation : A layer of lateral meristematic tissue between the xylem and phloem in the stems of woody plants. Lateral meristem tissue in plants that produces secondary growth.

Term : Vascular cylinder

Meaning of abbrevation : A central column formed by the vascular tissue of a plant root; surrounded by parenchymal ground tissue.

Term : Vent pipe

Meaning of abbrevation : A vertical pipe or stack in a building which allows ventilation of the stack or sewer. For domestic buildings less than 10 storeys the vent pipe is 50 mm diameter. The vent pipe can also be important to maintain atmosphere pressure in the sanitary pipe work. Discharges of wastewater running from the upper levels of a high rise building can produce high velocities in the discharge stack and may induce lower pressures resulting in siphonage of water seals from other utilities in the building. A vent pipe assists in overcoming this problem.

Term : Ventral

Meaning of abbrevation : Term applied to the lower side of a fish, or to the chest of a land vertebrate.

Term : Vertebrate

Meaning of abbrevation : Any animal having a segmented vertebral column; members of the subphylum Vertebrata; include reptiles, Þshes, mammals, and birds.

Term : Vessel elements

Meaning of abbrevation : Short, wide cells arranged end to end, forming a system of tubes in the xylem that moves water and solutes from the roots to the rest of the plant. Large diameter cells of the xylem that are extremely specialized and efficient at conduction. An evolutionary advance over tracheids. Most angiosperms have vessels.

Term : Vestigial structures

Meaning of abbrevation : Nonfunctional remains of organs that were functional in ancestral species and may still be functional in related species; e.g., the dewclaws of dogs.

Term : Vinyl

Meaning of abbrevation : A type of plastic (usually PVC) used to make products such as fruit juice bottles, credit cards, pipes and hoses.

Term : Viroids

Meaning of abbrevation : Infective forms of nucleic acid without a protective coat of protein; unencapsulated single-stranded RNA molecules. Naked RNA, possibly of degenerated virus, that infects plants.

Term : Waste

Meaning of abbrevation : Any matter, whether liquid, solid, gaseous, or radioactive, which is discharged, emitted, or deposited in the environment in such volume, constituency or manner as to cause an alteration of the environment.

Term : Waste

Meaning of abbrevation : Any material (liquid, solid or gaseous) that is produced by domestic households and commercial, institutional, municipal or industrial organisations, and which cannot be collected and recycled in any way for further use. For solid wastes, this involves materials that currently go to landfills, even though some of the material is potentially recyclable.

Term : Waste disposal

Meaning of abbrevation : The activity to get rid of the wastes either by putting the same in a landfill or incinerated or recycled etc.

Term : Waste generation

Meaning of abbrevation : Generation of unwanted materials including recyclables as well as garbage. Waste generation = materials recycled + waste to landfill.

Term : Waste treatment

Meaning of abbrevation : Physical, chemical and biological processes employed to remove dissolved and suspended solid from waste water.

Term : Waste water

Meaning of abbrevation : Liquid and water-carried industrial wastes and sewage from residential dwellings, commercial buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities, and institutions, whether treated or untreated, which are contributed to the publicly owned treatment works. Storm water, surface water, and groundwater infiltration may be included in the wastewater that enters a publicly owned treatment works.

Term : Wastes; industrial

Meaning of abbrevation : Anything, including heat, discarded or released from industrial operations of any kind, including the food processing industry. The decision to release or discard a particular waste has traditionally been made strictly on economic grounds, that is, whether it is cheaper to release or throw something away than to recover a marketable product.

Term : Wastes; municipal

Meaning of abbrevation : Substances discarded by private households, offices, shops, etc., as unusable. Generally collected by a local authority for disposal by dumping, sanitary landfill, composting or pyrolysis. It is used as a fuel for power production in large incinerators. Typically composed of paper, organic matter, plastics, metals and non-metallic minerals [ash].

Term : Wastewater treatment plant

Meaning of abbrevation : Mean that portion of the publicly owned treatment works which is designed to provide treatment of municipal sewage and industrial waste.

Term : Water conservation

Meaning of abbrevation : The protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. Water is combined with carbon dioxide by green plants in the synthesis of carbohydrates, from which all other foods are formed. It is a highly efficient medium for dissolving and transporting nutrients through the soil and throughout the bodies of plants and animals. It can also carry deadly organisms and toxic wastes, including radio-activity.

Term : Water softening

Meaning of abbrevation : A water-treatment process by which undesirable cations [of calcium and magnesium] are removed from hard waters. The presence of these cations in water is undesirable for household purposes, boiler feed, food processing, and chemical processing, because of reactions that form soap scum, boiler scale, and unwanted by-products.

Term : Water-borne disease

Meaning of abbrevation : Disease transmitted by drinking water or by contact with potable or bathing water. Certain bacterial, protozoan, and helminthic diseases of men are commonly or exclusively water-borne. The bacterial and protozoan pathogens are not normal to the water environment and do not multiply in natural waters. They gain entrance to water primarily from pollution by human excrement and less significantly from pollution by domestic and wild animals. In contrast, the helminthic pathogens may have a water animal as an intermediate host and may have a temporary free-living stage in water.

Term : Wind energy

Meaning of abbrevation : Kinetic energy of wind used for electricity generation using turbines

Term : Xerophytic leaves

Meaning of abbrevation : The leaves of plants that grow under arid conditions with low levels of soil and water. Usually characterized by water-conserving features such as thick cuticle and sunken stomatal pits.

Term : Xylem

Meaning of abbrevation : Tissue in the vascular system of plants that moves water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to the leaves; composed of various cell types including tracheids and vessel elements. Plant tissue type that conducts water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves.

Term : Zebroid

Meaning of abbrevation : A hybrid animal that results from breeding zebras and horses.

Term : Zone of elongation

Meaning of abbrevation : Area in plant roots where recently produced cells grow and elongate prior to differentiation.

Term : Zygospore

Meaning of abbrevation : In fungi, a structure that forms from the diploid zygote created by the fusion of haploid hyphae of different mating types. After a period of dormancy, the zygospore forms sporangia, where meiosis occurs and spores form.

Term : Zygote

Meaning of abbrevation : A fertilized egg. A diploid cell resulting from fertilization of an egg by a sperm cell.