Waste Management


16.0 Solid Waste Management:


The state has no masterplan for solid waste management even in major urban centers including the capital city of Agartala. According to the Agartala Municipal Council, about 90-95 metric tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of which approximately 50-60 metric tonnes are collected through NGO collaboration and dumped in Haphama Dumping Ground in form of sanitary land filling. In a recently held meeting (August 2001), Agartala Municipal Council has proposed improvement of the same through additional deployment of dumper, dozar, payloader and house to house collection, besides cleaning up of major roads and 10 markets, at a cost of nearly Rs. 453.0 lakh. A local NGO has also proposed to undertake work for conversion of organic wastes into compost, vermicomposting, pelletization etc. No final decision has been taken.


16.1 Biomedical Waste:


Biomedical waste means any waste, which generated during diagnosis, treatment, and immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities or in the production or testing of biologicals. Waste generation in hospitals and their disposal has always been a matter of concern to the medical profession.


Health care wastes are produced in hospitals, health centers, clinics, nursing homes, pathological laboratories, research institutions, veterinary clinics, midwifery centers and other medical cares conducted at home. The amount of wastes generated varies according to type of facilities. The total quantum of biomedical waste can be categorized into:

  • 1. Infectious and hazardous waste
  •     . Infectious sharp
  •     . Infectious non-sharp
  •     . Pathological
  • 2. Non-Infectious and non-hazardous waste

Segregation of the first two categories of waste at source is the first and foremost step in waste management. The infectious and hazardous waste mixed with the non-hazardous general ones multiplies problem in handling at final disposal. Handling the sharps is extremely critical. It calls for separate attention from other disposables in a waste management scheme.


Inventory of Health Care Establishments in Tripura:


Biomedical wastes are being generated from the following Health Care Establishments (HCEs) in Tripura:

  • 1. Government hospitals & dispensaries
  • 2. Defense/Police hospitals
  • 3. Private nursing homes
  • 4. Pathological laboratories
  • 5. Homoeopathic hospitals/dispensaries
  • 6. Veterinary hospitals and dispensaries
  • 7. Artificial Insemination Centers (AIC)
  • 8. Disease investigation laboratories

The district wise inventory of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) in Tripura is given in Table-109.


Table-109 : District wise inventory of Health Care Establishment in Tripura


Health Care Establishment
District Name
Total
West
South
North
Dhalai
Govt Hospitals & Dispensaries
           
State Hospitals 4 --- --- --- 4
District Hospitals --- 1 1 --- 2
Sub-Division Hospitals 3 3 2 3 11
Rural Hospitals 4 3 2 --- 9
Primary Health Centers 15 18 18 11 62
Sub Total 26 25 23 14 88
           
Defence Police Hospitals
           
BSF Hospitals 1 --- --- --- 1
Army Hospitals 1 --- --- --- 1
Police Hospitals 1 --- --- --- 1
Dispensaries of Army, Assam Rifles, TSR, CRPF, BSF 28 7 5 3 43
Sub Total 31 7 5 3 46
           
Private Nursing Homes 10 --- --- --- 10
Pathological Laboratories 36 26 15 11 88
           
Homeopathic Hospitals / Dispensaries          
           
State Hospitals 1 --- --- --- 1
Dispensaries 26 16 4 3 49
Sub-Centers 9 5 2 2 18
Sub Total 36 21 6 5 68
           
Animal Health Care Establishments          
           
Veterinary Hospitals 3 3 2 2 10
Veterinary Dispensaries 20 17 10 6 53
Veterinary Sub-Centers 93 58 43 25 219
Artificial Insemination Centers (AIC) 4 5 2 1 12
Disease investigation laboratories 1 1 1 --- 3
Animal stock where AI is done 50 26 23 9 108
Proposed vaccine production center (for the year 2001) 1 --- --- --- 1
Sub Total 172 110 81 43 406
Grand Total 707


The treatment capacity of different Health Care Establishments in Tripura:

 

The total bed capacity in different Health Care Establishments in Tripura is given in Table 110.

 

Table –110 : Bed capacity of different Health Care Establishments in Tripura


Health Care Establishments Number

Bed capacity

Total

 

 

West

South

North

Dhalai

 

State hospitals

4

1054

--

--

--

1054

District hospitals

2

--

150

150

--

300

Sub-division hospitals

11

205

150

60

100

515

Rural hospitals

9

120

80

60

--

260

Defense/Police hospitals

3

87

--

--

--

87

Homoeopathic hospitals

1

20

--

--

--

20

Private nursing homes

10

130

--

--

--

130

Total

2366


In case of animal health care, as per Directorate of Animal Resource & Development, following statistical figures (Table-111) are reported in all over Tripura:


Table –111 : Statistical figure for animal health care


Total case treated (avg.) 1,26,497 per year

 

27,483 per month
Total vaccination (FMD) given 86,844 for progressive period

 

33,405 per month
Vaccination other than FMD 23,933 for progressive period
Total Artificial Insemination done 22,097 for progressive period


Quantification of biomedical waste in Tripura:

Based on the waste audit carried out in representative hospitals, nursing homes, pathological laboratories and using specific waste generation factor evolved from them, the total quantum of solid biomedical waste (which includes organic waste) generated in Tripura is found to be 1573.2 Kg/day. In addition, 136 m3 of wastewater per day is generated from them. Out of this the quantity of organic waste is about 810 Kg/day. Table 4 gives the quantity of waste generated in different Health Care Establishments. This study is based on a recent report submitted by National Productivity Council, New Delhi to the State Pollution Control Board, Tripura.


Table 112: Total quantity of biomedical waste generated from different Health Care Establishments in Tripura

 

 


Waste categories

Quantity in Kg/day

State hospitals District hospitals

Sub-division hospitals

Rural hospitals

Primary Health Center Nursing homes Pathological laboratories Homoeopathic hospitals Defense/

Police hospitals

Total

Human anatomical waste, blood & body parts

19.3

--

--

--

--

2.5

--

--

--

21.8

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

2.1

0.3

--

--

--

--

2

--

--

4.4

Waste scraps

3.6

4

Neg

Neg

Neg

7

10

--

2.3

26.9

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

180

24

5

3.2

4.1

10

20

38.5

27.9

312.7

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

115.7

50

54

26.3

42.6

25.5

30

--

12.3

356.4

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Organic waste and paper contaminated with other biomedical waste

410

77

128

63

101.5

30

Neg

--

41.5

851

Total

730.7

155.3

187

92.5

148.2

75

62

38.5

84

1573.2

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/day)

66

16

11

5

8

5

20

--

5

136


Waste

Quantity in Kg/year

Veterinary hospitals Veterinary dispensaries Veterinary sub-centers Artificial Insemination Centers Disease Investigation Laboratories Animal stock where AI is done Total

Animal & slaughter house wastes (generated by veterinary hospitals, colleges, animal house and livestock farms)

756

--

--

--

9000

--

9756

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

--

--

--

--

10

--

10

Waste scraps

21

27

57.8

--

--

--

105.8

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

1890

500

11550

--

--

--

13940

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

756

445

4735.5

--

122

--

6058.5

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Total

3423

972

16343.3

--

9132

--

29870.3

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/day)

--

--

--

2400

--

5400

7800


On the basis of the above data, the quantity of biomedical waste expected to be generated per bed, per day in the Health Care Establishments in Tripura, has been calculated and is shown in (Table –114).

Currently, there is no appropriate system for disposal of biomedical waste. Joint meetings with CPCB, TSPCB, local authorities, Urban Development Department, Health Department and nursing homes have already been organized. Member Secretary, TSPCB as the Prescribed Authority and has constituted an Advisory Committee in the State under Biomedical Waste Rule. For effective implementation of the rules, TSPCB is closely interacting with AMC, nursing homes and Health Department. According to TSPCB, an action plan for inventorisation of hospital waste and for setting up of facilities for proper disposal of biomedical waste has been taken.

16.2 Hazardous Waste Management

A large variety of synthetic chemicals are used daily for different application for the benefit of human society. Chemicals like petroleum fuels, antibiotics and other drugs, plastics, food preservatives, agricultural fertilizers, pesticides etc. are entangled with our life. About 1,00,000 chemicals are estimated to be in daily use and of these, approximately 7000 are produced commercially in large quantities. Most of them have little or severe adverse effect on environment. Some of them are fatal in respect of human and animal health as well as to natural environment. These effects may be acute or chronic i.e. they become visible after short exposure or may be visualized after wide and prolonged usage.

 

Hazardous wastes management has become an important environmental and public health issue and concern with the ever-growing evidence of the serious consequences of indiscriminate disposal. The control and management of hazardous waste should draw a high level of public interest and socio-economic and political forces must play a major role in the control of environmental hazards.

 

The Government of India has notified necessary rules for handling and management of hazardous waste in 1989, amended in 2000. However, the handling and management of lead acid batteries has to be governed by the Batteries (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000.

Inventorisation of hazardous waste generation in Tripura

 

Due to lack of infrastructure and communication, Tripura is still an industrially backward state. The main livelihood of this state is agriculture. Most of the production units in Tripura are small-scale in nature and most of them do not available the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Therefore, inventorisation of hazardous waste for this state can only be done on the basis of medium-scale and large-scale industrial units. Based on the available information an inventory of hazardous waste generating units has been prepared by the National Productivity Council in 2001.

 

Estimation of Industries

 

As per the Directorate of Industries, Government of Tripura, there are four medium-scale projects are recorded presently:

Bowry Plywood (North Tripura)

Neramac Fruit Juice Concentrate Plant (North Tripura)

Tea Factories (West Tripura)

Jute Mills (West Tripura)

 

Apart from this, there are two large thermal power plants are now start operation. They are:

1. Barmora Gas Thermal Project, and 2. Rukia Gas Thermal Project

The Directorate of Industries, Government of Tripura recorded the presence of about 4724 small-scale registered industrial units in the state. According to 1999-updated information, there are about 2837 small-scale units located in the state. However, no information is available with any organizations/agencies about the actual number of operating industrial units in Tripura.

 

Industrial Authorities

 

In respect to industries existing in Tripura, the following departments and industrial associations are involved:

 

Directorate of Industries, Government of Tripura

Factories and Boilers Organization

Tripura Industrial Development Corporation Ltd.

Tripura Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Federation of Association of Cottage and Small Industries (FACSI), Tripura

Directorate of Handloom and Handicrafts, Government of Tripura

Tripura Handloom and Handicrafts Development Corporation Ltd.

Rubber Board, Government of India

 

Location of the Industrial Estates

 

Most of the small-scale units are randomly located. They are either located on roadside or in the thickly populated residential and commercial places. Rests of the industries are located in five designated industrial estates namely:

Arundhutinagar Industrial Estates

Badarghat Industrial Estates

Dhajanagar Industrial Estates

Kumarghat Industrial Estates

Dharmanagar Industrial Estates

 

Hazardous Waste Generating Sectors

 

Based on product manufactured and industrial process used, the following sectors have been identified as hazardous waste generating sectors conforming to Schedule I and II of Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Amendment Rule, 2000:

 

Drug intermediate (Diosgene) producing units

Pharmaceuticals

Latex producing units

Lead acid batteries reconditioning

Printing press

Photo printing

Leather tanning

Textile and handloom dying and printing

Aluminium product with melting facility

Timber processing

 

11. Repairing and servicing of automobiles

 

Industrial sector & district wise distribution of Hazardous Waste Generating Units (HWGUs)

Based on the information available with Tripura State pollution Control Board (TSPCB), NPC’s past experience, discussion with various departments, industrial associations, industrial units and during field visits inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Units (HWGUs) located in four districts of Tripura has been prepared. The district and sector wise distribution of hazardous waste generating units is given in Table-115.

 

Quantification of hazardous waste in Tripura

The quantum of hazardous wastes generated by different industrial units in the districts and industrial sectors of Tripura is given in Table-116.

Highest quantum of hazardous waste i.e. 88,000 m3/year is generated from processing of latex, which is highly bio-degradable and having the potential of CH4 gas generation provided latex processing is in organized way. Out of total 88,000 m3/year, 67 % is generated from West district only and balance 33 % is spread in remaining three districts.

About 0.8 MT/year of waste developing and fixer residue is generated from photo printing units in Tripura which is a smaller quantity. This is at present being drained to the municipal drains. However some units claim that they generally collect them in a drain and then send them to Assam for recovery of silver from it.

About 240 MT of spent acid is being generated per year from lead acid battery reconditioning process which is presently being discharged into municipal drains from all the small shops of battery reconditioning spread all over Tripura. The waste has to be neutralized and the lead has to be removed before discharge. In addition approximately 1200 MT of lead scrap is generated which is presently being sold out to traders for reclamation of lead outside Tripura.

About 198 MT of oil containing sludge and about 13.2 MT of cloth contaminated with oil are being generated per year from repairing & servicing of automobile The oil containing sludge is presently being sold out while cloth contaminated will oil is being burnt. The small shops for repairing of automobiles are spread all over the Tripura.

There are cluster of textile & handloom weaving units spread in West district of Tripura. However, dyeing of cotton yarns & printing of textile (bed sheets) is been carried out in co-operative societies only. The azo- dyes are being used for dyeing and printing. The wastewater containing spent dyes is being discharged into ground water without any treatment through digging the wells right up to aquifer. However, it is estimated that after installation of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) about 4.3 MT of sludge containing dyes will be generated per year at existing capacity of dyeing & printing.

There is only one tannery unit in West district of Tripura, which is not having any wastewater treatment plant. However, it is estimated that after installation of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), about 159 MT of sludge containing chromium will be generated per year at existing capacity of tanning i.e. 20,000 skins per month. Remaining hazardous wastes are in very small quantity.

In summary, it is apparent that at present no proper systems of hazardous waste management exist in the state of Tripura. However, it is expected that an appropriate management programme will be initiated by the Government of Tripura, based on the finding and recommendations of National Productivity Council, New Delhi.

 


Table -114 : Quantity of biomedical waste generated per bed per day from different Health Care Establishments in Tripura

 


Waste categories
Quantity in Kg/bed/day

 

State hospitals District hospitals

Sub-division hospitals

Rural hospitals

Nursing homes Homoeopathic hospitals Defense/

Police hospitals

Total
Human anatomical waste, blood & body parts

0.018

--

--

--

0.019

 

--

--

0.037

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

0.002

0.001

--

--

--

--

--

0.003

Waste scraps

0.003

0.013

Neg

Neg

0.053

--

0.026

0.095

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

0.17

0.08

0.009

0.012

0.076

1.925

0.321

2.593

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

0.109

0.167

0.105

0.101

0.196

--

0.141

0.819

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Organic waste and paper contaminated with other biomedical waste

0.389

0.257

0.248

0.242

0.231

--

0.477

1.844

Total

0.691

0.518

0.362

0.355

0.575

1.925

0.965

5.391

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/bed/day)

0.062

0.053

0.021

0.019

0.038

--

0.057

0.25


Table-115 : Industrial sector & district wise distribution of Hazardous Waste Generating Units (HWGUs) in Tripura

 


Industrial Sectors

Districts of Tripura State

 

Total no. of units Waste Type

 

West Tripura South Tripura North Tripura Dhalai

 

 

Drug intermediate (Diosgene) producing units

1

--

--

--

1

Different process recidues
Pharmaceuticals

5

--

--

--

5

Different process recidues
Latex producing units

12

7

8

4

31

Non-emulsified latex residue & wastewater
Lead acid batteries reconditioning

60

25

10

5

100

Spent H2SO4, exhauted lead plates with PVC seperators
Small printing press

60

14

13

6

93

Paper cloth containing printing ink residue, Lead letters
Government printing press

1

--

--

--

1

same as above
Newsprint (Letter printing)

29

--

--

--

29

same as above
Newspaper print (offset)

9

--

--

--

9

same as above
Photo printing

15

10

5

5

40

Different photochemicals
Leather tanning

1

--

--

--

1

ETP sludge contaminated with Chromium
Textile and handloom dying and printing

7

--

--

--

7

ETP sludge from wastewater treatment
Aluminium product with melting facility

2

--

--

--

2

Aluminium slag
Timber processing

1

--

--

--

1

Spent wood preservatives
Repairing and servicing of automobiles

80

19

33

10

142

Spent oil, oil emulsion, cloths contaminated with oil

 

 

 

 

Total

462

 


Table-116 : District and sector wise quantification of hazardous waste generation in Tripura

 


Industrial sector Waste type
Quantity in MT/year
 

 

 

West

South

North

Dhalai

Total

Lead acid battery reconditioning Spent acid 144 60 24 12 240

 

Lead scrape 720 300 120 60 1200
Printing press Paper cloth containing printing ink residue 9 2 1 0.9 14.1
  Lead letter 0.42 0.09 0.09 0.04 0.06
Newspaper print Developer residue 0.5 -- -- -- 0.5

 

Fixer residue 0.5 -- -- -- 0.5
Photo printing Developer residue 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.42

 

Fixer residue 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.42
Leather tanning ETP sludge contaminated with chromium 159 -- -- -- 159
Textile and handloom dying ETP sludge from wastewater treatment 4.3 -- -- -- 4.3
Aluminium product with melting facility Alumunium sludge 18 -- -- -- 18
Pharmaceuticals Process residue 0.04 -- -- -- 0.04
Use and production of latex Latex emulsion residue (wastewater) 52800 13200 13200 8800 88000
Timber treatment Residue from the use of the wood preservatives 0.024 -- -- -- 0.024
Drugs intermediate production Distillation residue 0.05 -- -- -- 0.05
Repairing and servicing of automobiles Oil containing sludge and oil emulsion 112 26 46 14 198

 

Cloths contaminated with oil 7.4 1.7 3 0.9 13.2