In Tripura, 432 wetlands have been mapped and 2983 small wetlands (< 2.25 ha) identified. Total wetland area estimated is 17542 ha. Inland natural wetlands dominated in the state with 63% share. The major natural wetland types are; river/stream (42.30%) and waterlogged (16.79%). There are 60 lake/pond with about 1.7% area. Under man-made wetlands, reservoir/barrage is the major wetland type with 18.93% share. The details of type-wise aerial extents of wetland is given in the table.

In terms of open water area, the natural wetlands showed 6769 ha in post-monsoon and 6085 ha in pre-monsoon seasons. The reduction in open water area is mainly due to change in waterlogged. In case of man-made wetlands, the open water is 3078 ha and 938 ha respectively for post-monsoon and pre-monsoon. The reduction in open water in pre-monsoon is significant in reservoir/barrage. Lake/Pond, ox-bow lake/cutoff meander, waterlogged, river/stream, reservoir/barrage and tank/pond are the only wetland types that have vegetation. Together the all classes comprise 1779 ha in post-monsoon season while it has shown an increase to 5232 ha in pre-monsoon.

Overall six wetland types are assessed for qualitative turbidity namely; lake/pond, ox-bow lake/ cut-off meander, waterlogged, river/stream, reservoir/barrage and tank/pond. Turbidity of water in all natural wetlands is in general moderate in both the seasons. The turbidity of water in reservoir/barrage types is low to moderate in post-monsoon, while mainly moderate in pre-monsoon. Overall, the open water features of wetlands in Tripura are dominantly moderate in turbidity in both the seasons followed by low and high turbidity. Moderate turbidity constituted largest area in post-monsoon (7148 ha) out of 9847 ha of open water i.e. about 73 per cent. While in pre-monsoon it dominated the open water with 6329 ha out of 7023 ha of open water, which turns out to be about 90 per cent. Low turbidity accounted for about 27% in post-monsoon and 9% in pre-monsoon while the area under high turbidity was insignificant (about 1%) in both the seasons.

Type of Wetland
Area (Sq.Km.)
No of. wetlands
Oxbow lakes

As recorded in the above table, the State has got more waterlogged areas but the reservoirs cover larger areas. Besides the above wetlands, there are large number of water harvesting structures in different Forest Divisions which also qualify as wetland areas. These wetlands also support diverse birds and fish species. Of the total fish fauna of the wetlands, 2 are ranked as endangered and 12 as vulnerable species. Among the birds, one species is ranked as threatened. These Wetlands also support different species of aquatic vegetation
Of the total wetlands, following 7 Wetlands are important from the point of view of biodiversity conservation and as centers of socio-economic values (through water supply, fisheries, fuel wood, medicinal plants, livestock grazing, agriculture, energy resource, wildlife resource, transport, recreation and tourism, etc.) and potential sources for eco-tourism in the state.

Prioritized list of the main wetlands of Tripura
No. Name of the wetland Rank Use
1. Gumati reservoir (Dumbur lake) 1 M
2. Rudrasagar (Nirmahal) 1 M
3. Sepahijala reservoir 2 M
4. Trishna wetlands 2 M
5. Sttar Mia’s Haor 2 M
6. Batapara lake(Agt) 3 M
7. College Tilla lake 3 M

Considering the importance of wetlands following strategies and action points are proposed in the Perspective Plan.
To undertake a watershed-based approach to wetland protection for providing protection to the whole system, including land, air, and water resources.
To undertake detailed survey of flora & fauna and other features of the Wetlands for the preparation of the management Action Plan (MAP) for each important wetland
To protect the catchments of the Wetlands by means of Afforestation, aided natural re-generation etc., using suitable mix of tree species. The division-wise targets will be fixed for treatment of catchments which will be integrated into the normal afforestation programmes under given Annual Plan Operation for each division.
To undertake specific eco-tourism based activities for Gumati, Rudrasagar, Sepahijala and Trishna wetlands. The details of such activities have been incorporated under the Head ‘Eco-tourism in Tripura’ in this Perspective Plan.
To promote livelihood /employment generation options for the local communities through formation of JFMCs and Self Help Groups. These communities / groups will undertake activities which will help them earn their livelihoods besides imparting protection to the Wetlands.
To lay special emphasis on cane plantations over an area of 700 ha. (100 ha. per year) covering wetland areas in all the divisions/sanctuaries. The cane plantation will help in protection of key wetland areas besides helping generation of income for the local people.
To promote education and awareness among the different stakeholders.
All the above strategies and activities have been incorporated and integrated into the different Programmes of the Perspective Plan (I to IV). Both physical and financial targets including the budgetary requirements for the said strategies/activities have also accordingly been incorporated in the main Perspective Plan under the appropriate Programmes.

For more details about the Wetlands of Tripura Please Click Here to browse the Report "National Wetland Atlas : Tripura", prepared by Space Application Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad-380015 and sponsored by Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India.